来源:沃顿教育时间:2019-08-09 14:52



Section 1  Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
 Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence   1  firm’s work, too.
 Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.  2  , firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking  3  for making investments for the future.
 The researchers wanted to know if the  4  and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would  5  the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness  6  by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
   7  enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were  8  . But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities  9  why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various  10  that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was  11  to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally  12  even after accounting for these things.
 The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors  13  to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less  14  managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was  15  stronger in places where happiness was spread more  16  . Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.    17   this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least  18  at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help  19  how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and  20   R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.             

1.  [A] why  [B] where [C] how [D] when
2.  [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10.  [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share
20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Text 1
  It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
  However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers — but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced-or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding boot camps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but “we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
  The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the “Ruby on Rails” language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn — how to think logically through a problem and organize the results — apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
  Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers — in their pockets, in their offices, in their homes — for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want — the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that — the better.
  21. Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to____.
    [A] complete future job training [B] remodel the way of thinking
    [C] formulate logical hypotheses [D] perfect artwork production
  22. In delivering lessons for high-schoolers, Flatiron has considered their____.
    [A] experience                [B] academic backgrounds
    [C] career prospects            [D] interest
  23. Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will____.
    [A] help students learn other computer languages
    [B] have to be upgraded when new technologies come
    [C] need improving when students look for jobs
    [D] enable students to make big quick money
  24. According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to____.
    [A] compete with a future army of programmers
    [B] stay longer in the information technology industry
    [C] become better prepared for the digitalized world
    [D] bring forth innovative computer technologies
  25. The word “coax” (Line 4, Para.6) is closest in meaning to ____.
    [A] challenge   [B] persuade   [C] frighten   [D] misguide
Text 2
  Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens - a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands — once lent red to the often gray landscape of the mid-western and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species’ historic range.
  The crash was a major reason the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decided to formally list the bird as threatened. “The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation,” said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats. But Ashe and others argued that the“threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken’s habitat.
  Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range — wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat. The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat, USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years. And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species,” Ashe said.
  Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction,” says biologist Jay Lininger.
26. The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is ____
[A]its drastically decreased population
   [B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
   [C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
   [D]the insistence of private landowners
27. The “threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it _____
   [A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
   [B]would involve fewer agencies in action
   [C]granted less federal regulatory power
   [D]went against conservation policies
28. It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they _____
  [A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
  [B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
   [C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
   [D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29. According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in ______
  [A]the federal government    [B]the wildlife agencies
   [C]the landowners          [D]the states
30. Jay Lininger would most likely support _______
   [A]industry groups        [B]the win-win rhetoric
   [C]environmental groups    [D]the plan under challenge
Text 3
  That everyone’s too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There’s never any time to read.
  What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient. The web’s full of articles offering tips on making time to read: “Give up TV” or “Carry a book with you at all times” But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn’t work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you’re so exhausted that a challenging book’s the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption”. Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can’t be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.
  In fact, “becoming more efficient” is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you’ll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. “The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them”. No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.
So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us “step outside time’s flow” into “soul time”. You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. “Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you’re “making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything else.
 31. The usual time-management techniques don’t work because _____
    [A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind
    [B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading
    [C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them
    [D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
 32. The “empty bottles” metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to _____
    [A] update their to-do lists      [B] make passing time fulfilling
    [C] carry their plans through     [D] pursue carefree reading
 33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps _____
    [A] encourage the efficiency mind-set  [B] develop online reading habits
    [C] promote ritualistic reading        [D] achieve immersive reading
34. “Carry a book with you at all times” can work if _____
    [A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
    [B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with
    [C] you are able to drop back to business after reading
    [D] time can be evenly split for reading and business
35. The best title for this text could be _____
    [A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading  [B] How to Find Time to Read
    [C] How to Set Reading Goals    [D] How to Read Extensively
Text 4
Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.
Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.
Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.
  From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.
Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. While younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those “just getting started in life” face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.
Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said.” I can’t afford to pay monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to make that happen.” Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young. “I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn’t have college degrees,” Schneider said. “I don’t think people are capable of that anymore.”
36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is _____.
   [A] trying out different lifestyles     [B] having a family with children
   [C] working beyond retirement age  [D] setting up a profitable business
37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to ____.
[A] favor a slower life pace   [B] hold an occupation longer
    [C] attach importance to pre-marital finance
  [D] give priority to childcare outside the home
38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will ____.
   [A] become increasingly clear [B] focus on materialistic issues
   [C] depend largely on political preferences
   [D] reach almost all aspects of American life
 39. Both young and old agree that ____.
   [A] good-paying jobs are less available
 [B] the old made more life achievements
   [C] housing loans today are easy to obtain
   [D] getting established is harder for the young
 40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?
   [A] He found a dream job after graduating from college.
   [B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success.
   [C] His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree.
   [D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging.
Part B
Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.
  [A]Be silly
  [B]Have fun
  [C]Express your emotions
  [D]Don't overthink it
  [E]Be easily pleased
  [F]Notice things
  [G]Ask for help
  As adults, it seems that we are constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art - and for the most part they don't need self-help books or therapy. Instead, they look after their well-being instinctively, and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. Perhaps it's time to learn a few lessons from them.
  What does a child do when he's sad? He cries. When he's angry? He shouts. Scared? Probably a bit of both. As we grow up, we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don't dictate our behaviours, which is in many ways a good thing. But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones. that's about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill. What we need to do is find a way to acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately, and then - again like children - move.
  A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was nine years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn't stop talking about it. Too often we believe that a new job, bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have very little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve well-being.
  Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies, increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and even have a greater chance of fighting off enfection. All of which, of course, have a positive effect on happiness levels.
  The problem with being a grown up is that there's an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with - work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the things we love. Those things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around the living room, anyone?) - it doesn't matter, so long as they're enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you're on a tight budget.
  Having said all of the above, it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy. Scientists tell us this can backfire and actually have a negative impact on our well-being. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said: "Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness." And in that, once more, we need to look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural by product of the way they live. 
Section III Translation
46. Directions:Translate the following text into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple:The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you'll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you'll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,00 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead begin shopping emotionally - which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.
Section IV Writing
Part A
47. Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend Jack wrote an email to congratulate you, and ask advice on translation. Write him a reply to
1) thank him;
2) give your advice.
 You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead. Do not write the address .(10 point)
Part B
  Write an essay based on the following chart. you should
  1) interpret the chart and
  2) give your comments.
  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points).

1. C  “新发现表明:快乐可能会影响工作__的稳定。” A为什么 B 哪里 C怎样,多么 D当…时候。根据语义分析,C选项填入原文,译为“快乐可能会影响工作是有多么稳定”,C正确。
2. B   第二段第一句译为“根据近期的研究,拥有更多快乐的人的公司会投资更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快乐氛围中的公司会做更多的研发以及发展。“A反过来 B尤其是 C相反  D总的来说 第二句是在第一句的基础上进一步强调说明,B更符合。
3.  D 题干 “That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”译为“因为快乐与对未来投资有______长远考虑相联系。”填形容词, 考虑其搭配与其修饰成分。空格处搭配介词for, 并且修饰“长远考虑”。 A充足的 B著名的 C完美的 D必要的  D符合。
4. C  考查同后缀的名词辨析。原文探讨“happy people”与公司的关系。 A个人主义 B现代主义 C乐观主义 D现实主义  C符合。
5. D  考查动宾搭配would the way companies invested.,宾语为“公司投资的方式” A发出回声  B想念,错过 C破坏 D改变
6.B  So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”“他们把盖洛普咨询公司所_____的美国城市平均幸福指数与该地区的上市公司投资活跃度进行对比。” A想象 B衡量,测量 C发明 D假定,设想 “ 原文盖洛普咨询公司所做是“既定事实”排除ACD。B最佳。
7.A 本题为固定搭配“sure enough” 译为“足以肯定的是” A确信的 B奇怪的 C不幸运的 D经常的
8. D 原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8. ”足以肯定的是,公司投资与研发力度与公司______的幸福指数相关。”in which 引导表示地点的定语从句,先行词为area.对比四个选项, A广告的 B划分的 C课税过重的 D位于总部的 ABC不足以说明此地点的真实含义。D搭配前文area, 构成“总部所在地”合理。
9.A 原文“…or could something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” “explain”和“why” 搭配使用。A解释 B夸大 C概述 D重点强调
10.B “To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”破折号后 “大小,产业,销售”都是 “让公司有更多投资的”因素。  A阶段 B因素 C等级 D方法 B符合。
11. A 填形容词,修饰名词place,在意义上也是对like growth in wages or population的解释,填褒义词,并能修饰place.只有A 合适 B 社交的 C 受尊敬的 D可依靠的。
12.  B 该句是这一段的总结句,该段整体描述幸福与投资之间的关系,而这一link就只能得出了,只有B held 符合语境。A “重新开始”,C “浮现”,D “破坏”。
13. A 该空是一个which引导的定语从句的谓语动词所在地,动词的宾语就是前面的主句,强调“幸福与投资之间的关系尤其适用于新公司”这一结论与后面“所做决定会偏草率”之间的关系,能看出是一个因果关系,因此答案选择A表示“归因于……”,而B表示“指派” C “转移到” D“与……比较”均不符。
14. D 前面有一个并列连词and, 与前面的young一致修饰managers,强调新公司的领导年轻并缺乏经验,D合适。
15.  C 前面说到“年轻的新经理决策时更容易受情绪影响。”与后面的“这种关系在员工幸福指数_____的公司尤为明显。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快乐的员工所在的部门,而不是不快乐的部门”之间是递进关系,C 合适。
16.  D 考察副词修饰spread, 但更要注意的是该句“这种关系在员工幸福指数_____的公司尤为明显。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快乐的员工所在的部门,而不是那些不快乐的部门。”中与后面的inequality形成复现关系,选D。
17.  C 考察上下文逻辑关系,应着力在上段和这段的关系。这段第一句“这并不证明是幸福导致公司大量投资……”,两句间是转折关系,选while.
18.  C 考察动词与at的固定搭配,arrive at是“到达,抵达”,jump at是“扑向;欣然接受”hint at是“暗示” strike at是“袭击,攻击”,文章中的at least 和that possibility论证这是一种可能,只有hint at有这含义。
19.  A 根据上下文应选一个“影响”未来看法含义的动词,B“再发现”  C“使简化” D“分享”均可以排除,A“塑造,形成,影响”,选A。
20.  B 考察动词词组,词义应与and前意思一致,作用对象为研发。A祈祷 B 倾向 C放弃,泄露  D放出,给予。B能表达递进含义。
21. B 人物观点题  根据Cortina定位到第二段Cortina认为尽早接触计算机科学是有益的。第三句It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. 在转变思维程序方面小孩不像年龄较大的学生一样困难,B为同义替换。reshape 重塑 remold 重塑 Mold 形成,塑造
22. D细节题。关键词Friedman定位第四段第二句“我们试图让课程符合学生兴趣”,D 正确。
23. A 人物观点题。题干问Deborah Seehorn认为在Flatiron这里所学到的技能将能怎样,定位到第五段But处,和题干基本一致,该句指出“But the skills they learn…appl to any coding language”,他们学到的技能可应用于任何编码语言。对比选项,A为同义替换。
24. C 细节题。题干指出:Flatiron的学生被期望干什么。定位最后一段These kids are going to be,题干的同义复现。“These kids are…be surrounded by computers for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think…….the better.”,学生们越早学越好。C同义概述。
25. B 词义句意题,结合上下文解题。根据coax定位到最后一段how to coax the machine into producing what they want”,考察固定搭配“persuade …into…。A挑战,B劝服,C使恐慌,D误导。
26. A 原因细节题。根据关键词定位第一段But前后关于lesser prairie chickens 数量2million和22,000的强烈对比。第二段第二句“the lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation”A正确。
27.  C 原因细节题。定位第二段They had …, a state that gives federal officials greater regulatory power. But 后是截然相反的事实,即政府授予更少的管理权。C 正确。
28.  A 推断题。题干问从第三段推出来:无意伤害的那些人是不会被检举的如果怎样。根据题干定位第三段首句“it would not prosecute….as long as ….”,题干中问的if即原文的as long as的同意替换,原文只要他们签署了计划。下一句该计划要求个体和企业去支付基金。A属同义替换。
29. D 细节题。定位第三段最后一句the idea is to let the “states” remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species, A she said. 其中in the driver’s seat对应题干中的the leading role, D正确。
30. C 人物观点题。题干问Jay Lininger最可能支持谁,定位末段最后一句:生物学家Jay Lininger说联邦政府把责任推给导致鸟类灭绝的企业,显然反对政府和企业。再往前看:企业团体和政府部门观点一致,环境学家与其观点恰巧一致。Jay Lininger最支持环境团体。
31. D 因果细节题。题干:传统的时间管理方法不起作用的原因是什么。根据题干定位第二段首句the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient,是题干的同义替换。要找原因,整段都在分析过程环节,最终原因必在该段末句提到。直接定位该段末句,深入阅读不仅需要时间,而且是一种仅仅通过有效无法获得的一种时间。D为原文末句的同义替换。
32. B题干问“empty bottles”暗喻了人们在做什么方面有压力,empty bottles可在文中Gary Eberle说的话中找到:“The future comes at us like empty bottles…”。所说的话是为了说明前一句的观点。该题定位三段“try to slot…but not the most fulfilling kind”,该句指出:只会处理目标集中的阅读是有用的,但不是最有满足感的。B是原文的同义替换。
33. D人物观点题,注意区分文中人物观点和作者观点。题干问Eberle赞同为阅读设定规定性时间帮助什么。根据题干精确定位第四段第二句:“You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, E…..into soul time”,你会认为这可以提升效率性思维设定,但实际上这些行为帮助跨入灵魂阅读时间。D同义替换。
34.  A 细节题。根据题干定位末段中间部分“carry a book with you at all times can actually work, too … so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business.”,阅读就成为默认状态,偶尔会出来管理工作(注意business并非默认状态,非主要事情)。A该句的同义替换。
35. B 标题题,即全文主旨。通过题干,可发现题干关键词中time复现多次,因此可确定time为全文的主题词。整篇文章围绕阅读时间展开。
36.B 细节题。根据关键词定位第二段第一句Across generational lines, …including getting married, having children…成功的标志包括结婚生子,B正确
37. C 细节题。根据关键词定位第三段第一句Young people…to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children…年轻人认为夫妻在结婚前或者生小孩前应在经济上稳定,C正确。
38. D 细节题。根据关键词定位第四段第一句…those just starting…will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects …这些期待将渗透到美国生活的各方面,D正确。
39. D 人物观点题。根据关键词定位第五段…it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. 与年长者比,如今年轻人维持生计更困难,D 正确。
40. C 判断题。根据关键词定位第六段Looking back…his parents could provide a comfortable life for the children even though neither had completed college when he was young.父母即便没上过大学仍可为孩子提供舒适生活,C正确。
41. C 表达情感。开头以问句的方式:“孩子悲伤会怎样?孩子生气会如何?他们的表达方式与大人不同,成人更多选择压抑情感,并有后果,如致病。紧接着总结:我们要找到一种合适的方式表达,像孩子那样。整段中心意思,重复的出现就是情感的表达。选C
42.E 举例证明观点。从例子也可总结出表达的意思。小女孩因为廉价的圣诞礼物就高兴,在讲小的幸福。例子后的观点。提到成人的世界里所谓的车,房会让我们幸福,其实不然。instead 把中心意思表达出来,幸福来自小事。选E
43. A 一句话出现在第二句问句后,如果我们能够“愚蠢“一点,我们将会有各种好处。那这一段几乎大段的篇幅都花在这一句上,主旨更加明显:Be silly.
44. B 这段讲成人的世界里有太多让人烦恼的东西,But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the things we love 。接下来举例子,说明可以做的享受的事情,最后说好处。前后一直在说应享受。have funs合适。
45.D 不要想怎样才幸福,应用哲人的话说明这个道理,告诉大家过程就是幸福的。排除法。G寻求帮助未提及。F 选项直接排除。那么对应关系,D不要想太多。“无欲无求,本就是幸福。“选D。
46. 超市旨在吸引顾客尽可能长时间的停留在店中。其原因很简单:顾客在店里停留的时间越长,看到的商品越多;而看到的商品越多,买的就会越多。超市中出售大量的商品。根据食品推广协会的调查,普通的超市大概有44000种不同的商品;还有很多超市出售的商品高达上万种。如此多的选择足以使顾客面对超负荷的信息。根据脑部扫描实验,需要快速的做这么多决定就会让我们难以承受。大约在购物40分钟后,大多人就不会再努力做出理性的选择了,取而代之的就是冲动购物——而这时,我们的购物车中已经装了一半根本就没想买的东西了。
Dear Jack,
  I’m writing to express my gratitude for your congratulation on my success in the translation contest.
  As regard to my experience, I would like to offer you some proposals in this part. First and foremost, I strongly suggest you that you need to practice with painstaking effort in this field. What’s more, you had better have more communication with foreigners, which guarantees that you have a deep understanding of foreign culture. Last but not least, you are supposed to participate in some international events to accumulate a wealth of practical experience.
  Thanks again and I do hope you could take my suggestions into consideration. I wish you have good luck and make a great success in your future study.
  Yours sincerely,
  Li Ming
As is clearly reflected in the above pie chart, the purpose of students travelling abroad demonstrates obvious differences in one college of China. According to the data given, the purpose of enjoying the beautiful landscape takes a comparatively large share, accounting for 37%, while that of relieving pressure also takes away 20% of the whole proportion.
  What triggers this phenomenon? It is not difficult to put forward several factors responsible for this phenomenon. To start with, with the rapid economic development of economy, people, including college students, are becoming increasingly wealthy, which enables them to afford the once-deemed- expensive oversea traveling. In order to enjoy the charming landscape all around the world, a large proportion of students choose to travel abroad. What’s more, along with the ever-accelerating improvement of economy and society is also the ever-increasing work and life pressure. Consequently, the purpose of relieving pressure ranks the second among all the purposes for folks to travel around the world.
In view of the arguments above, we can conclude that the current phenomenon is of no surprise. And therefore, it can be predicted that admiring the scenery and alleviating pressure will still be the main purpose for people to arrange a trave to other countries.