来源:沃顿教育时间:2019-08-09 14:51



Section I  Use of English

Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has  1  across the Web.
  Can privacy be preserved  2  bringing safety and security to a world that seems increasingly  3  ?
  Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation's cyber-czar, offered the federal government a  4  to make the Web a safer place-a "voluntary trusted identity" system that would be the high-tech  5  of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolled  6  one. The system might use a smart identity card, or a digital credential  7  to a specific computer .and would authenticate users at a range of online services.
The idea is to  8  a federation of private online identity systems. User could  9  which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver's license  10  by the government.
  Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these "single sign-on" systems that make it possible for users to  11  just once but use many different services.
   12 , the approach would create a "walled garden" in cyberspace, with safe "neighborhoods" and bright "streetlights" to establish a sense of a  13  community.
  Mr. Schmidt described it as a "voluntary ecosystem" in which "individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with  14  ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure  15  which the transaction runs".
  Still, the administration's plan has  16  privacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach; others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would  17  be a compulsory Internet "drive's license" mentality.
  The plan has also been greeted with  18  by some computer security experts, who worry that the "voluntary ecosystem" envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet  19 . They argue that all Internet users should be  20   to register and identify themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads.           

1. A. swept B. skipped   C. walked D. ridden
2. A. for B. within C. while D. though
3. A. careless B. lawless C. pointless      D. helpless
4. A. reason B. reminder C. compromise D. proposal
5. A. information B. interference C. entertainment  D. equivalent
6. A. by B. into C. from D. over
7. A. linked B. directed C. chained D. compared 
8. A. dismiss B. discover C. create D. improve
9. A. recall    B. suggest C. select D. realize
10. A. released B. issued C. distributed D. delivered    
11. A. carry on B. linger on C. set in D. log in
12. A. In vain B. In effect C. In return D. In contrast
13. A. trusted B. modernized C. thriving D. competing
14. A. caution B. delight C. confidence D. patience
15. A. on B. after C. beyond D. across
16. A. divided B. disappointed C. protected D. united
17. A. frequently B. incidentally C. occasionally D. eventually
18. A. skepticism B. relevance C. indifference D. enthusiasm
19. A. manageable B. defendable C. vulnerable D. invisible
20. A. invited B. appointed C. allowed D. forced
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40points)
Text 1
  Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs's board as an outside director in January 2000: a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much eroticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman's compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said.
  Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a firm's board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive's proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises.
  The researchers from Ohio University used a database hat covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different directors between 1989 and 2004. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing a board was age, so the researchers concentrated on those "surprise" disappearances by directors under the age of 70. They fount that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increased by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they "trade up." Leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more stable firms.
  But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks, even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons, once again very popular on campus.
  21. According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for _____ .
    [A]gaining excessive profits         [B]failing to fulfill her duty
    [C]refusing to make compromises    [D]leaving the board in tough times
  22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be _____.
    [A]generous investors      [B]unbiased executives
    [C]share price forecasters    [D]independent advisers
  23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director's surprise departure, the firm is likely to _____.
    [A]become more stable             [B]report increased earnings
    [C]do less well in the stock market    [D]perform worse in lawsuits
  24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors _____.
    [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm
    [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm
    [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm
    [D]will decline incentives from the firm
  25. The author's attitude toward the role of outside directors is ______ .
    [A]permissive    [B]positive    [C]scornful    [D]critical
Text 2
  Whatever happened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemed near. The recession threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America's Federal Trade commission launched a round of talks about how to save newspapers. Should they become charitable corporations? Should the state subsidize them ? It will hold another meeting soon. But the discussions now seem out of date.
  In much of the world there is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilian papers have shrugged off the recession. Even American newspapers, which inhabit the most troubled come of the global industry, have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago, but profit all the same.
  It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13,500 newsroom jobs have gone since 2007. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and, sadly for many journalists, they can be pushed further.
  Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanese newspapers are much more stable.
  The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody, but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business.
26. By saying "Newspapers like … their own doom" (Lines 3-4, Para. 1), the author indicates that newspaper ______ .
   [A]neglected the sign of crisis        [B]failed to get state subsidies
   [C]were not charitable corporations   [D]were in a desperate situation
27. Some newspapers refused delivery to distant suburbs probably because ______ .
   [A]readers threatened to pay less   
[B]newspapers wanted to reduce costs
   [C]journalists reported little about these areas
   [D]subscribers complained about slimmer products
28. Compared with their American counterparts, Japanese newspapers are much more stable because they ______.
   [A]have more sources of revenue   [B]have more balanced newsrooms
   [C]are less dependent on advertising   [D]are less affected by readership
29. What can be inferred from the last paragraph about the current newspaper business?
   [A]Distinctiveness is an essential feature of newspapers.
   [B]Completeness is to blame for the failure of newspaper.
   [C]Foreign bureaus play a crucial role in the newspaper business.
   [D]Readers have lost their interest in car and film reviews.
30. The most appropriate title for this text would be ______.
   [A]American Newspapers: Struggling for Survival
   [B]American Newspapers: Gone with the Wind
   [C]American Newspapers: A Thriving Business
   [D]American Newspapers: A Hopeless Story
Text 3
  We tend to think of the decades immediately following World War II as a time of prosperity and growth, with soldiers returning home by the millions, going off to college on the G. I. Bill and lining up at the marriage bureaus.
  But when it came to their houses, it was a time of common sense and a belief that less could truly be more. During the Depression and the war, Americans had learned to live with less, and that restraint, in combination with the postwar confidence in the future, made small, efficient housing positively stylish.
  Economic condition was only a stimulus for the trend toward efficient living. The phrase "less is more" was actually first popularized by a German, the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who like other people associated with the Bauhaus, a school of design, emigrated to the United States before World War II and took up posts at American architecture schools. These designers came to exert enormous influence on the course of American architecture, but none more so that Mies.
  Mies's signature phrase means that less decoration, properly organized, has more impact that a lot. Elegance, he believed, did not derive from abundance. Like other modern architects, he employed metal, glass and laminated wood-materials that we take for granted today buy that in the 1940s symbolized the future. Mies's sophisticated presentation masked the fact that the spaces he designed were small and efficient, rather than big and often empty.
  The apartments in the elegant towers Mies built on Chicago's Lake Shore Drive, for example, were smaller-two-bedroom units under 1,000 square feet-than those in their older neighbors along the city's Gold Coast. But they were popular because of their airy glass walls, the views they afforded and the elegance of the buildings' details and proportions, the architectural equivalent of the abstract art so popular at the time.
  The trend toward "less" was not entirely foreign. In the 1930s Frank Lloyd Wright started building more modest and efficient houses-usually around 1,200 square feet-than the spreading two-story ones he had designed in the 1890s and the early 20th century.
  The "Case Study Houses" commissioned from talented modern architects by California Arts & Architecture magazine between 1945 and 1962 were yet another homegrown influence on the "less is more" trend. Aesthetic effect came from the landscape, new materials and forthright detailing. In his Case Study House, Ralph everyday life - few American families acquired helicopters, though most eventually got clothes dryers - but his belief that self-sufficiency was both desirable and inevitable was widely shared.
 31. The postwar American housing style largely reflected the Americans'______ .
  [A]prosperity and growth    [B]efficiency and practicality
  [C]restraint and confidence  [D]pride and faithfulness
 32. Which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 3 about Bauhaus?
  [A]It was founded by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
  [B]Its designing concept was affected by World War II.
  [C]Most American architects used to be associated with it.
  [D]It had a great influence upon American architecture.
 33. Mies held that elegance of architectural design ______.
  [A]was related to large space
  [B]was identified with emptiness
  [C]was not reliant on abundant decoration
  [D]was not associated with efficiency
 34. What is true about the apartments Mies building Chicago's Lake Shore Drive?
  [A]They ignored details and proportions.
  [B]They were built with materials popular at that time.
  [C]They were more spacious than neighboring buildings.
  [D]They shared some characteristics of abstract art.
 35. What can we learn about the design of the "Case Study House"?
  [A]Mechanical devices were widely used.
  [B]Natural scenes were taken into consideration
  [C]Details were sacrificed for the overall effect.
[D]Eco-friendly materials were employed.
Text 4
  Will the European Union make it? The question would have sounded strange not long ago. Now even the project's greatest cheerleader's talk of a continent facing a "Bermuda triangle" of debt, population decline and lower growth.
  As well as those chronic problems, the EU faces an acute crisis in its economic core, the 16 countries that use the single currency. Markets have lost faith that the euro zone's economies, weaker or stronger, will one day converge thanks to the discipline of sharing a single currency, which denies uncompetitive members the quick fix of devaluation.
  Yet the debate about how to save Europe's single currency from disintegration is stuck. It is stuck because the euro zone's dominant powers, France and Germany, agree on the need for greater harmonization within the euro zone, but disagree about what to harmonies.
  Germany thinks the euro must be saved by stricter rules on borrow spending and competitiveness, barked by quasi-automatic sanctions for governments that do not obey. These might include threats to freeze EU funds for poorer regions and EU mega-projects and even the suspension of a country's voting rights in EU ministerial councils. It insists that economic co-ordination should involve all 27 members of the EU club, among whom there is a small majority for free-market liberalism and economic rigors; in the inner core alone, Germany fears, a small majority favour French interference.
  A "southern" camp headed by French wants something different:"European economic government" within an inner core of euro-zone members. Translated, that means politicians intervening in monetary policy and a system of redistribution from richer to poorer members, via cheaper borrowing for governments through common Eurobonds or complete fiscal transfers. Finally, figures close to the France government have murmured, euro-zone members should agree to some fiscal and social harmonization: e.g., curbing competition in corporate-tax rates or labour costs.
  It is too soon to write off the EU. It remains the world's largest trading block. At its best, the European project is remarkably liberal: built around a single market of 27 rich and poor countries, its internal borders are far more open to goods, capital and labour than any comparable trading area. It is an ambitious attempt to blunt the sharpest edges of globalization, and make capitalism benign.
36. The EU is faced with so many problems that ______ .
  [A] it has more or less lost faith in markets
  [B] even its supporters begin to feel concerned
  [C] some of its member countries plan to abandon euro
  [D] it intends to deny the possibility of devaluation
37. The debate over the EU's single currency is stuck because the dominant powers _____.
  [A] are competing for the leading position
  [B] are busy handling their own crises
  [C] fail to reach an agreement on harmonization
  [D] disagree on the steps towards disintegration
38. To solve the euro problem, Germany proposed that ______.
  [A] EU funds for poor regions be increased
  [B] stricter regulations be imposed
  [C] only core members be involved in economic co-ordination
  [D] voting rights of the EU members be guaranteed
39. The French proposal of handling the crisis implies that ______.
  [A] poor countries are more likely to get funds
  [B] strict monetary policy will be applied to poor countries
  [C] loans will be readily available to rich countries
  [D] rich countries will basically control Eurobonds
40. Regarding the future of the EU, the author seems to feel ______.
  [A] pessimistic  [B] desperate  [C] conceited    [D] hopeful
Part B
Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text about what parents are supposed to do to guide their children into adulthood. Choose a heading from the list A-G that best fits the meaning of each numbered part of the text (41-45). There are two extra headings that you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Leading doctors today weigh in on the debate over the government's role in promoting public health by demanding that ministers impose "fat taxes" on unhealthy food and introduce cigarette-style warnings to children about the dangers of a poor diet.
  The demands follow comments last week by the health secretary, Andrew Lansley, who insisted the government could not force people to make healthy choices and promised to free businesses from public health regulations.
  But senior medical figures want to stop fast-food outlets opening near schools, restrict advertising of products high in fat, salt or sugar, and limit sponsorship of sports events by fast-food producers such as McDonald's.
  They argue that government action is necessary to curb Britain's addiction to unhealthy food and help halt spiraling rates of obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Professor Terence Stephenson, president of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, said that the consumption of unhealthy food should be seen to be just as damaging as smoking or binge drinking.
  "Thirty years ago, it would have been inconceivable to have imagined a ban on smoking in the workplace or in pubs, and yet that is what we have now. Are we willing to be just as courageous in respect of obesity? I would suggest that we should be," said the leader of the UK's children's doctors.
  Lansley has alarmed health campaigners by suggesting he wants industry rather than government to take the lead. He said that manufacturers of crisps and confectionery could play a central role in the Change4Life campaign, the centrepiece of government efforts to boost healthy eating and fitness. He has also criticised the celebrity chef Jamie Oliver's high-profile attempt to improve school lunches in England as an example of how "lecturing" people was not the best way to change their behaviour.
 Stephenson suggested potential restrictions could include banning TV advertisements for foods high in fat, salt or sugar before the 9pm watershed and limiting them on billboards or in cinemas. "If we were really bold, we might even begin to think of high-calorie fast food in the same way as cigarettes - by setting stringent limits on advertising, product placement and sponsorship of sports events," he said.
  Such a move could affect firms such as McDonald's, which sponsors the youth coaching scheme run by the Football Association. Fast-food chains should also stop offering "inducements" such as toys, cute animals and mobile phone credit to lure young customers, Stephenson said.
   Professor Dinesh Bhugra, president of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, said: "If children are taught about the impact that food has on their growth, and that some things can harm, at least information is available up front."
  He also urged councils to impose "fast-food-free zones" around schools and hospitals - areas within which takeaways cannot open.
  A Department of Health spokesperson said: "We need to create a new vision for public health where all of society works together to get healthy and live longer. This includes creating a new 'responsibility deal' with business, built on social responsibility, not state regulation. Later this year, we will publish a white paper setting out exactly how we will achieve this."
  The food industry will be alarmed that such senior doctors back such radical moves, especially the call to use some of the tough tactics that have been deployed against smoking over the last decade.

  A. “fat taxes” should be imposed on fast-food producers such as McDonald’s
41. Andrew Lansley held that B. the government should ban fast-food outlets in the neighborhood of schools
42. Terence Stephenson agreed that C. “lecturing” was an effective way to improve school lunches in England
43. Jamie Oliver seemed to believe that D. cigarette-style warnings should be introduced to children about the dangers of a poor diet
44. Dinesh Bhugra suggested that E. the producers of crisps and candies could contribute significantly to the Change 4 Life campaign
45. A Department of Health spokesperson proposed that F. parents should set good examples for their children by keeping a healthy diet at home
  G. the government should strengthen the sense of responsibility among businesses
Section III  Translation
Part C
Directions: In this section there is a text in English. Translate it into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
  Who would have thought that, globally, the IT industry produces about the same volume of greenhouse gases as the world's airlines do-roughly 2 percent of all CO2 emissions?
  Many everyday tasks take a surprising toll on the environment. A Google search can leak between 0.2 and 7.0 grams of CO2, depending on how many attempts are needed to get the "right" answer. To deliver results to its users quickly, then, Google has to maintain vast data centres round the world, packed with powerful computers. While producing large quantities of CO2, these computers emit a great deal of heat, so the centres need to be well air-conditioned, which uses even more energy.
However, Google and other big tech providers monitor their efficiency closely and make improvements. Monitoring is the first step on the road to reduction, but there is much more to be done, and not just by big companies.

Section IV Writing
Part A
  Direction: Suppose your cousin, Liming, has just been admitted to a university, write him/her a letter to
  1) congratulate him/her, and
  2) give him/her suggestions on how to get prepared for university life.
  Your should write about 100 words on ANSER SHEET 2.
  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Zhang Wei" instead.
  Do not write the address. (10 points)
Part B
  Write a short essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should
  1) interpret the chart and
  2) give your comments.
  You should write at least 150 words.
  Write your essay on ANWER SHEET 2.(15 points)

Section I   Use of English
1.A 需从四选项中选出不及物动词,能与空格前的主语that (指代the explosion of cyber crime网络犯罪的激增)构成主谓逻辑,并与空格后的介词短语across the Web构成动宾逻辑。A swept (打扫,席卷)可做不及物动词,并能与空前的主语和空后的介词短语构成顺畅的逻辑关系,即在文中表示“匿名制是造成网络犯罪席卷互联网的原因”,A正确。B skip“跳过,掠过”;C walk“走,步行”;D ride骑虽可做不及物动词,但与空前主语和空后介词短语不构成完整的主谓搭配和动宾搭配,都是干扰项。
2.C 空格所在句子的主句是privacy be preserved (隐私得以保护),从句是省略了主语和助动词的bringing safety and security to the world (带来网络世界的安全),由此可以推断本句是要表达“在给世界带来安全保障的同时,隐私是否能够得以保护呢?”,C while 意为“在....的同时,当....的时候”, 可以表示伴随关系,故为正确答案。A for表示因果关系; B within表示“在.....面,不超出”: Dthough表让步关系;在搭配上与doing并无典型用法,此外带入空格,整个句子逻辑也很不通顺,为干扰选项。
3.B空格中需填形容词和seems构成系表结构,并能说明主语that (指代a world)的特点。bringing safety and security to a world“给这个世界带来安全和保障”的信息,表明当前世界需要“安全保障”,即当前世界的特点是“不安全,缺乏保障”,由此可以推断空格中需要“不安全,缺乏保障,混乱”等类似语意。B“无法无天的,失去法律控制的”,正确。A careless“粗心的,草率的";C pointless“无意义的,无益的"; D helpless“无助的";都无法与上文的safety and security形成对应逻辑,皆为干扰选项。
4 D上一段提到了网络完全的问题,面对这一问题Howard Schmidt为联邦政府提出建议,使网络成为安全之地。D proposal“提议,建议”,和空前搭配“向联邦政府建议”和空后不定式搭配表示提议的目的,符合文章表达的含义,为正确选项。A reason“原因,后面不可连接不定式短语(接介词for) 表目的;B reminder意为“提醒物”,符合(1) (2)要求,但offered the federal government a reminder t...“提醒政府记得去....".逻辑上不妥: C compromise“妥协”,一般不用offer sb. sth的用法,其后也不接不定式to表示目的,此外“向政府妥协”更无从说起,干扰选项。
5.D. a“voluntary trusted identity system that would be the high-tech 5 (of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card):本题目处于关系代词that 引导的定语从句中,that 指代先行词“voluntary trusted identity" system,在从句中做主语,would be 是从句系动词,空格处应该是从句表语,以对主语进行解释说明,且后面接有介词短语做后置定语,对其修饰限定。根据以上分析,D选项equivalent 意为“对应物,等同物”既可以对system 做出解释“该系统等同.....".也可以与后面的介词短语形成顺畅的逻辑,在文中表示“相当于集实物钥匙、指纹和带照片身份证为一体的高科技‘自愿信任身份识别’系统”,故为正确答案。A information意为“信息”,不能与system形成主系表逻辑,不能说“系统是信息”,故为干扰项: B interference“干涉,干扰”,后常接介词with或in, 一般不接of,故为干扰项;C entertainment意为“娱乐;款待”,既与后面的修饰语(实物钥匙、指纹和带照片身份证)不搭,也明显与上文“加强网络安全”和“自愿身份认证”的逻辑对应不上,为干扰项。
6.B空格前的rolled是考生需要关注的重点,此处roll是动词,意为“使混合”,常用的搭配是roll ....意为“滚进:使合为一体”,在此处表示“....一体”,故为正确答案。如Banks are several businesses rolled into one.银行是合为一体的集中不同企业。本题也可根据前后句意找到线索: a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolledone,本句中all 显然指划线的三处并列表达,rolled 至少可看出是被动逻辑,所以不难理解成“多者被....一者”,也就是“多者作为部分被进入到了一个全新者”中,所以选into.A roll by“流逝”: C roll from无此固定搭配;D roll over“翻滚”。
7.A  ... a digital credential 7 to a specific comuler..:.Alink (使关联),常用被动形式,惯用搭配是belinkedto“.....相关”,代入空格与前面的名词整体可理解为“与某一具体电脑相关联的数字证书”,语义通顺,A正确。B direct to“把...用于,指示去”;C chain to“拴住,束缚”;D compare to意为“把....比作,....相比",代入空格语义皆不通顺,为干扰项。
8.C The idea is to 8 a federation of private online identity systems: 该“观点”的目的就是上段“建议”的目的,空格后的federation of private online identity system意为“个人在线身份系统联盟”,空格中需要动词,表示“建立,创造,形成”等类似含义,故选项A的create为正确答案。A项dismiss意为“解雇,解散”,与文意相反;B项discover意为“发现”,通常指“不经意法相”,不能表示本句的主观目的,此外“联盟”是机构,机构应是“建立”的而非“发现”的;D项improve意为“改善,提高”,通常是对既有事物的改进,但空格后的不定式告诉考生这是一个全新的机构,全新的机构只能是“建立”。
9.C Users could 9 which system to join.:. 本句主语是users (用户),空格中所需谓语动词应该和“使用”有关:空格后的宾语是which system to join “进入哪个系统”,由此推断空格中需要填“选择”或者“决定”等类似含义,表示“用户可以选择加入哪个具体系统”,故C select 选择,挑选为正确答案。A recall回忆,回想”,上文提及系统的建立仅仅是提案的目的,尚未实施,故“回忆”在此逻辑不通; B suggest意为“建议”,“建议”通常针对的对象是他人,而本句主语“users”应该是“被建议”的对象:D realize“实现”,通常指的是既定目标的实现,但是后面的宾语which system to join 在逻辑上应该是实现目的的方式,而非目的本身。
10. B  ..that would require an Internet driver’ s license 10 by the government: 空格中需要填动词的过去分词,做中心词driver' s license 的定语。该过去分词的逻辑主语是government “政府”,逻辑宾语是driver's license “驾驶执照”,由此推断空格中需要“颁发”之意,故B issue“出版,发表;颁发,签发”为正确答案。A项release意为“释放,发行”: C项distribute分配,分布”;D项deliver递送,交付”,明显与空格前后的逻辑性不强,故为干扰项。
11.D .. companies that already have these“single sign-on' systems //that make it possible for users to 11 just once but use many different services 后面是关系代词 that 引导的定语从句,that 指代先行词systems,“这种系统可以使用户....次便可以享受多项服务”。single对应just once,而sign-on (签约)对应空白,根据空格所在句子的前半部分“谷歌和微软等公司已经启用了签名系统”可知,“签约”在本句是比喻用法,指的是用户在注册系统中的注册登记,故空白含义需要“登录,注册”等类似含义,所以D login登录,进入正确。A项carry on从事,忙于;继续进行,与空格后的just once明显无法搭配;B linger on停留,徘徊,与空格后的just once也明显无法搭配;C项set in意为“嵌入,开始,到来”,由于动作发出者是users (网络用户),“网络用户”不会发出“嵌入”这样的动作,为干扰项。
12.B  the approach would create a“walled garden” in cyberspace... 这种句首有空格,其后有逗号的题目,通常需要填逻辑性很强的副词或介词短语,以承上启下,体现上下文的逻辑关系。其解题思路是比对上下文信息,具体到本题目:根据空格后的the approach (注意定冠词的指示意义)可知上文讲述的是这种方式,而would create“walled garden in cyberspace“这种方法会在网络上建起‘带围墙的花园’”,表示这种方法的实际效果,由此推断空格中需要“事实上,其实”等类似含义,故B in effect 实际上正确。A项in vain“徒劳地,无用地”,与空格后的would create..逻辑相反;C项in return“作为报答;反过来”,通常指付出与收益的逻辑对应;D in contrast “相反,相比之下”,体现上下文的对比反差关系,此处上下文是承接的关系。
13.A ...with safe “neighborhoods" and bright “streetlights” to establish a senseof a I 3 community:句子的大意是“这种方法会在网络空间中创建- -中带有安全‘街区’和明亮‘街灯’的围墙的花园’”,来营造一中具有什么感觉的社区”。空格中需要填的词语便是这种感觉,推断这是安全,放心,值得信任”的社区,故A trusted “信任为正确答案。B项modernized现代化的”;C项thriving“兴旺的”; D项competing竞争的”:不能与safe“neighborhoods”and bright “ streetlights”形成对应
14.C“individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with 14 ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure.. 根据上文提及的“营造相互信任的社区氛围”及下文空格后的trusting the identities of each other提示空格中需要填trusting 的近义词表达“信任,相信”等含义,表示“这是一种个人和组织可以放心地完成网上交易的系统”,故C with confidence“满怀信心地,放心地”为正确答案。A项caution“谨慎,小心”,与划线表达trust in...构成相反逻辑; B项delight“快乐,高兴”,与划线表达trusting...对应性不强;D patience意为“耐心,耐烦”,与划线表达trust in...也无法形成对应。
15. A ..the infrastructure ( 15 which the transaction runs): 本题是对定语从句知识点的考核。空格处的介词与其后的从句which the transaction runs - 起作定语修饰空格前的“infrastructure", 关系代词which 前面的介词选哪个,首先取决于先行词的搭配选择,which 指代infrastructure 基础,其他物应在其上,故该词常接介词on (依赖,......表示交易凭借基础设施而得以进行,故A正确。
16.A  Still, the administration' s plan has 16 privacy rights activists. ( Some applaud the approach; others are concerned.);根据下文括弧内信息“一些人对此表示赞成,而另一些人则表示担忧”可知,主张隐私权利的活跃分子对政府的这项计划观点有分歧,故A divided “使产生分歧”为正确答案。B disappointed“使失望”: C protected保护;D项united“联合”无法与下文的some..others..形成逻辑对应。
17. D ..such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would I 7 be a compulsory Intermet“drive' s license”mentality:根据斜体词initiative (开始的,初步的)、toward (朝.....方向)以及would(将来)可以推知空格的含义应是讨论这个计划“未来的结果或趋势”,D选项eventually “最终,最后”用在文中表示“这一计划朝着最终的强制推行网络‘驾照’的模式迈出了第一步”,符合语意,故为正确答案。A项frequently 意为“频繁地”:B项incidentally 意为“顺便地:偶然地”;C项occasionally意为“偶尔地”;都不能与上述关键词形成逻辑对应。
18. A  The plan has also been greeted with 18 by some computer security experts, who worry that.... 空格中需要填名词,表示电脑安全专家对这份计划的态度或反应,根据下文电脑安全专家之后的定语从句who worry that..已经明确的说明了他们的态度是worry,表明他们对此计划持怀疑态度,故A skepticism“怀疑”为正确答案。B项tolerance 意为“宽容,容忍;C项indifference 意为“漠不关心,冷漠”D项enthusiasm意为“热心,热情”,不能与worry形成对应逻辑。
19. C ..who worry that the “voluntary ecosystem”envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Intemet 19,:空格所在句说明一些电脑安全专家对“voluntary ecosystem”的担忧worry,that 引导的宾语从句应是消极信息,而“voluntary ecosystem"本来的目的是要网络安全,由此可以推断出电脑安全专家的担忧是“voluntary ecosystem”网络仍然不安全,空格中需要“不安全,容易被侵害,不可信”等类似含义,故C vulnerable“弱的,易受攻击的正确。A manageable"易处理的,可做到的”和B项defendable" 可防御的”明显是积极词汇,与worry逻辑不一一致: D项invisible意为“看不见的,无形的”,与被修饰单词the Intermet 无法形成修饰关系。
20. D They argue that all Internet users should be 20 to register and identify themselves,in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads:根据斜体词in the same way,本句把users和drivers做了类比,后者必须持有驾照才能在公共道路上驾车,故前者登记身份并确认也是必须的,D强迫,强制与必须是近义关系,体现出强制性的口吻,正确。A invited意为“被邀请的”;B被任命的: C被允许的;都没有体现出于must be 一样的强制口吻,逻辑对应性不强。
Section II  Reading Comprehension
21. B 根据Paragraph 1和Ms. Simmons was criticized for定位文章首段第三句“But by the end of2009 Ms. Simmons w as underfire forhaving saton Goldman's compensation committee;ho wcould she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked?"文中短语“be under fire"是对题干中“criticized"一词的同义替换。题目问的是Ms. Simmons受到批评的原因,答案就在“for”之后的部分,“她担任高盛公司薪酬委员会的职务,却怎能在无人注意的情况下轻易发放如此巨额的奖金呢?”这句话虽然没有直接给出她受到批评的原因,却用一个反问句告诉我们她做的事情,她作为薪酬委员会的成员让巨额的款项流失了,这是与她担任的职位不符的行为,即背离了她的职责,因此答案选B. A项的干扰源自于“have let those enormous bonus payouts pass", 但“让巨额奖金得以发放”并不等同于“获得了太多的利益”,故A项不对,属于断章取义: C项拒绝妥协属于无中生有,原文首段并未提到;D项的干扰源自于“the next years Ms. Simmons had Left the board",但这并不是受到批评的原因,而是结果,属于把原因和结果倒置。
22. D定位第二段首句Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful,yet biased, advisers on a fim’s board.,这句话告诉我们独立董事所扮演的角色是advisers顾问,接下来,第二句话“they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive' s proposals."指出独立顾问在公司中是享有独立性的,独立顾问实际是具有独立性的顾问,D正确。A的干扰来自于“made their wealt-elsewhere",但是“在别处创造了财富”并不等于“慷慨的投资人”,属于无中生有;B干扰是源于修饰词biased,文章中确实提到了“biased advisers",但是选项中的executive并不是advisers,故不对;C的干扰源于文章第二段最后一句,“如果股价下跌,独立顾问应根据自己的经验给出建议”,但对于股价下跌给出建议,并不是预测股价,重点还是在建议上,不对。
23. C根据the researchers from Ohio University和“after an outside director';surprise departure” 定位原文第三段第四句和第五句,“They found that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate eamings increases by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class action lawsuit also increases,and the stock is likely to perform worse."这两句话给出了公司在独立董事离开可能出现的三种情况,1)重申盈利状况的可能性增加了近20%;2)被牵扯到联邦法院所受理的集体起诉案件中的可能性也随之增加;3)公司在股市的表现也会更糟。与这三种情况之一对应的是C,选C。A项“变得更稳定”,虽然第三段段末出现了stable一词,但与题干所问问题并无关系,属于无中生有的选项;B利用文中“the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increases by nearly 20%”这一句话中三个放在一起的词语"restate earnings increases”设置干扰项,事实上通过分析句子结构,发现这个句子说的是“the probability-.. increases by 20%”(可能性增加)而非“earnings increases" (收入增加),故B不对;D干扰源自“The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases",这句话指出独立董事离开后可能出现的第二种情况,“被牵扯到联邦法院所受理的集体起诉案件中的可能性也随之增加”,但并不等同于“在诉讼案件中表现更糟”,D错误。
24.A推断题,根据题干定位文章最后一段。文章最后两句指出“如果公司想在艰难时期留住独立董事,就必须建立激励制度。否则,独立董事都将效仿Simmons女士”,由此,可以推断,独立董事如果有激励制度刺激的话,就可能留在公司,选项A“可能由于诱人的条件而留在公司”是对这个意思的同义替换,其中的关键词attractive offers 就等同于原文中的incentives,选A。B“通常在公司有不良行为的记录”,与最后一段首句逻辑相反;C在本段中根本没有涉及到,属于无中生有: D与文章最后两句意思相反,排除。
25.B观点态度题,作者对独立董事起作用的态度。首先根据题干信息“the role of outside directors" 可以回文定位到第二段首句“Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a fim's board",讲述独立董事所扮演的角色是“helpful"和“less biased”的,这是对独立董事作用的积极评论;其次,文章最后一段指出“如果公司想在艰难时期留住独立董事,就必须建立激励制度”这说明独立董事对于一个公司确实是有用的,否则不会特意建立针对他们的激励制度。因此,综合全文而言,作者认为独立董事所起的作用是积极的
26. D 句意理解题。作者用这句话举例说明上文所提出的现象,答案应该回到上句进行寻找,“A year ago the end seemed near." (一年前,报业岌岌可危)一句提到了报业的状况。因此,题干所问句子实际是用比喻说法(为自己的命运编年记事)表明包括《旧金山纪事》在内的报纸身处绝境,命运堪忧,D符合题意,为正确答案。A在原文并未提及,属于无中生有: B中的“国家补贴”在首段倒数第三句有所涉及,但这只是美国联邦贸易委员会探讨拯救报业的一项措施,内容是“国家要不要资助报业”,而非是“报业没能得到国家资助”,故是干扰项。C项源自首段倒数第四句,错误与B完全相同,也只是联邦贸易委员会现探讨的一项措施,内容是“报业要不要成为慈善机构”,而非“报业不是慈善机构”。
27.B 推断题。根据refused delivery to distant suburbs”定位文章第三段第五句“Some Paper seven.refuse deliver..".问的是报社这样做的原因,题目并未直接给出,需要通过上下文进行推测。第四句说“报纸内容缩水,价格提高”,第六句总结性地说“These desperate measures..."前而提到的“拒绝投递到郊区”和“报纸内容缩水”一样,都是报社采取的措施中的一种,后者显然是想减少成本,考虑到这些措施的共同目的,“拒绝投递到郊区”应该也是处于对成本的考虑,选B. A与原文内容相反,原文是“报纸内容缩水,但读者却要付费更多”,不正确: C内容文中并未涉及,无中生有 D无中生有,文中并未提及订阅者是否有投诉行为。
28.C 推断题。根据Japanese newspapers are much more stable定位原文第四段的尾句“Not surprisigy..".但因为该题目问的是原因,且定位到原文的信息是段落最后一句,所以应该从上文找寻原因:本段第二句提到“美国报业的畸形发展是因为它过多地依赖广告收益”,第三句以87%的具体数据来补充说明,第四句提到日本的数据仅为35%。通过两国的数据比较可以看出日本报业对广告的依赖度显然比美国小的多,结果是题干提出的结果“难怪,日本报业更稳定”。日本报业更稳定的原因就是对广告的依赖小,C正确。就日本的报业状况而言,原文的信息仅提到其广告收入的比例,及由此带来的稳定性,A、B、D未提及,无中生有。
29.A 段落推断题。题干问最后一整段的信息,这里采用判断题的做法来做,即把四个选项与文中信息进行比对。根据最后一段第一句话中“but much ofthe damage has been concentrated in areas where newspapers are least distinctive" 可知,“最受重创的是报社中最不具特色的部门”,所以与众不同对报纸来说是至关重要的,故A项正确。文章第五句提出“Newspapers are less complete as a result.",报纸完整性的丧失是报业危机带来的结果,而非报业危机的原因,B项不对;根据第四句“Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off."可知,当前的报纸行业中,驻外机构已被裁减,C可以排除:文中第二句“Car and flm reviewers have gone.提到汽车和电影评论栏目已经消失,未提及读者们对这两个栏目的反应,D不对,属于推断过度。
30.A 文章主旨题。首段提出人们曾经对报纸消亡的担忧:第二段讲“美国报业的复苏":第三段讲“报业采取的措施";第四段讲“报业收入日趋平衡”;第五段讲“报业的变化并非坏事”,所以本文主要探讨的是在经历了危机之后,报业的复苏和平衡,因此答案A是正确的。根据文章首段尾句“But the discussions now seem out of date."可知,首段前面提到的关于报业身处绝境岌岌可危等的讨论都是不合时宜的了,因此本文的主题是积极的,而非“报业的消亡”,故B、D可以排除;根据第三段首句“It has not been much fun”可知,C项过于乐观,也不正确。
31.C细节题。根据the postwar American housing style定位文章第二段尾句..that restraint, in combination with the postwar confidence", made small, efficient housing positively stylish",本句话中的谓语动词made,表示前因后果的逻辑,即“节制”与“自信”带来“战后住房风格”的“盛行”,反过来也可以理解为“战后美国的住房风格”反映美国人的“节制”与“自信”C正确。A的干扰源自文章首段,但prosperity和growth是人们对二战后这个时问段的映像,与美国的战后住宅风格无关,A不对;B的干扰源自第二段尾句made small, efficient housing positively stylish,这两个词说明美国二战后的住房风格,非是美国人的情况,不对;D文中未提及,无中生有。
32.D 推理判断题。根据Bauhaus定位第三段,对四个选项分别进行判断。段落第二句The phrase.. 定语从句who的内容告诉读者Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 只是与Bauhaus有交往,而非创建者,A不对.本句还提到与Bauhaus相关的人是在二战前移民到美国的,并未提及它的设计理念受到二战的影响,排除B;在这个句子中who引导的定语从句部分,只提到了其他与Bauhaus建筑学派有关的人”,但并不等于“大多数美国建筑师都曾和它有联系,属过度推理,C不正确。D可在第三段最后一句These designers came to exert enormous influence on the course of American architecture找到对应信息,此句中these designers承接上文指代Mies和与Bauhaus有关的建筑师,推出Bauhaus对美国建筑有很大影响,D正确。
33. C 细节题。根据Mies held和elegance of architectural design定位原文第四段第二句,C对这句话同义改写, was not reliant on = did not derive from, abundant decoration = abundance,选C.根据第四段the spaces he designed were small and efficient, rather than big and often empty可知,A、B、D与此句信息相反,不正确。
34. D判断题。题干the apartments Mies built on Chicago' s Lake Shore Drive指向第五段首句“The apartments Mies were smalrthan those in their older neighbour".逐一把四个选项与原文信息对比,发现C与文章内容相反,排除.第五段第二句“But they were popular because of .."判断A(忽略细节和比例)排除,因原文说这些房子很受欢迎是因为它们有“高雅的建筑细节和比例”B属偷换概念,原文说当时很受欢迎的东西是“the architectural equivalent of he abstract art”,而非B所说的材料,故不正确;D是对原文内容“theelegance o fthe buildings' detailsand proportions, the architectural equivalent of the abstract art so popular at the time"的总结归纳,Mies所建的房子具有的是当时备受欢迎的抽象艺术的某些特点,D正确。
35.B判断题。根据the design of the 'Case Study Houses'定位尾段。再将文中所提到的细节与四个选项进行比对,发现第二句A esthetic effect came from the landscape, new materials and forthright detailing.提到样板房的美学效果都是源自于自然景色、新型材料和明快的细节。B正确,C与文章相反,细节并未被牺牲,而是美学效果要考虑的因素之一,D偷换new material的概念,新型材料不一定就是环保材料。尾段第三句提到“Ralph Rapson may have mispredicted just how the mechanical revolution would impact everyday life", mispredict说明他是对未来的预测,表明机械革命的影响是在未来出现的,在当时并没有,就更不用说机械装置的广泛应用了,A不正确。
36.B细节题。根据The EU is faced with so many problems定位首段第二句“Now even the project' s greatest cheerleaders talk of a continent facing a‘Bermuda triangle ’of debt, population decline and lower growth."题千是对这句话的同义改写,the EU = a continent,so many problems = a Bermuda triangle of.", is faced with = facing,根据前部分的内容选B,是对原文的同义改写even =Now even, its supporter =the project' s greatest cheerleaders, begin to feel concerned=talk of.根据第二段第二句“Markets have lost faith that..市场丧失对欧盟的信心,而非欧盟对市场丧失信心,A错误;C在文中未提及,无中生有D的干扰源自“which denies uncompetitive members the quick fix of devaluation"统一的货币让某些无竞争力的成员国无法快速地解决货币贬值的问题,非否认货币贬值的可能性,D对原文信息进行无依据的篡改,排除。
37.C 细节题。根据the debate第三段第二句“It is stuck because the euro zone' s-harmonise." 重点在于but之后的内容“disagree about what to hamonise",“就协调的内容未能达成一致”,C正确,原文的同义改写。A、B在文章中都未提起,无中生有;D的干扰源自Yet the debate about how to save Europe' s single currency from disintegration is stuck."这场辩论的目的是讨论如何使欧洲的货币不走向分裂,而非分裂,D曲解文意,不正确。
38.B细节题。根据To solve the euro problem, Germany proposed"定位第四段首句“Germany thnsk...". 德国认为对欧元的拯救是通过实施严格的条例来实现的,B正确,原文同义改写,stricter regulations = stricter rules, be imposed= by. A和D的干扰源自第四段的第二句“These might include threats to".这句话旨在说明对于不严格遵守条例的成员国政府要进行惩罚,惩罚内容就包括冻结欧盟对贫困地区的资金资助和暂停某个成员国的表决权,A和D内容与内容截然相反,不正确: C干扰源自“It insists that economic coordination should involve all 27 countries,德国坚持认为经济合作要囊括欧盟的27个成员国,而非只有核心成员国,C不对。
39. A推理判断题。定位A southern camp headed by France want...".法国阵营对于解决欧盟统-货币提出的建议,接下来的这句话对首句的意思进行了解释,说明具体的内容,包含“从富国到穷国的再分配制度”,即贫穷的成员国更易获得资金,A正确,排除C。原文定位处提到货币政策,但说到的是政治家们人为地干预货币政策以及从穷国到富国的重新分配制度,并未提到穷富国的货币政策的问题,B无中生有: D的干扰源自第四段第二句话,提到欧元债券,但是以欧元债券的形式为成员国政府提供低息贷款从而实现从富国到穷国的再分配目的,并未提到富国是否对欧洲债券有控制,D不对,无中生有。
40.D态度题。最后一段提出对欧盟未来的看法“It’s too soon to write off the EU. It remains the world' s largest trading block..." 现在就认为欧盟将失败还为时过早,欧盟仍然是世界最大的贸易区。作者对欧盟的未来心存希望,选D.
Part B
41.E 根据Andrew Lansley定位第二段和第六段,第二段的内容没有对应信息,范围缩小第六段,第六段的内容与C,E,G表面上有相关性。E是对第六段He said that manufacturers of crisps and candies could play a central role in the Change 4 Life campaign的改写,符合。C Andrew Lansley反对的观点,而G与Andrew Lansley 所认为的“industry rather than government to take the lead”有很大的出入排除,正确答案E。
42.D根据Terence Stephenson 定位第四段和第七段。第四段Terence Stephenson认为不健康食品的适用应该被视为与吸烟和酗酒同样具有危害的行为”,并且他作为资深医学专家或极具影响力的医生的代表在第四段出现,为了支持首段leading doctors的“introduce cigarette -style warnings to children about the dangers of a poor diet"的观点,对应D.第七段“If we were really bold, we might even begin to think of high-calorie fast food in the same way as cigarettes - by setting strict limits on..."进一步强化Terence Stephenson 的观点。其余没有与Terence Stephenson相对应的信息。由Jamie Oliver定位第六段。Lansley批评Oliver试图改善英国学校午餐的高调做法,证明自己的观点。从侧面说明Jamie Oliver的观点是lecturing是最有效的方式。C的effective是对的best 的同义替换,答案C.
44. B 根据Dinesh Bhugra定位第九段和第十段.第十段He also urged councils to impose“fast-food-free zones” around schools and hospitals- areas within which takeaways cannot open.与B是一致的,其他与第九第十段没对应项。
45.G 根据A Department of Health spokesperson定位第十一段。卫生部发言人说,应该建立新的公众健康观念,包括与商界达成新的社会协议,该协议应基于社会责任而不是政府的规定,与G是相符的。所剩A,F,G中,A和F与第十一段文字无关,排除。
Section III Translation
很多日常工作对环境的损害是惊人的。根据人们得到“正确”答案所需查询次数不同,每在谷歌上搜索- "次便会产生0.2到7.0克的二氧化碳。为了快速将搜索结果传递给用户,谷歌不得不借助功能强大的计算机系统来维护全球各大数据库中心。这些计算机在产生大量二氧化碳的同时,还释放出了大量的热量,因此数据中心又必须装备很好的散热设备,这就会消耗更多的能源。
Section IV Writing Part A
Dear Li Ming,
I am writing to congratulate you on your being successfully admitted to Peking University, which enjoys an international reputation for its academic excellence, and give you some suggestions so as to help you make full preparations for the coming college life.
In order for you to adapt yourself to the university life, you are advised to get prepared physically nd intellectually.
First and foremost, you need to build a strong body for the future academic pursuit, so you can take some exercises in your spare time. Secondly, since the study in university is more demanding than that in your secondary school, you are highly suggested to find some introductory books from the library in order to have a good idea of the specialty you are going to take in your college life. Given your sound ability, you are sure to have a successful college life. Congratulate you again and wish you a fruitful collge life.
Sincerely yours,
Zhang Wei
Part B
What is shown in the column chart above indicates that dramatic changes have taken place in the market share of certain brands in domestic car markets from 2008 to 2009. Our home-made automobile's market share ratio picked up from 25% in 2008 to approximately 35% in 2009, while that of Japanese brands declined significantly by 10% from 35% to 25% during this period. What's more, the market share taken by American car brands remained stable. Several factors may account for the marketshare change of the chart. First, in2009, Chinese government is enhancing favorable policies to improve domestic automobile production. Meanwhile, we can see that Geely merged with Volve in 2009, which contributest o the increase of home - made automobile market share. Second, the dishonest words and poor after-sale service of Japanese automobile toward domestic market cheapens their image and finally ruin their reputation. Last, the improvement of American cars' performance must contribute to the rise of American cars’ sales.
To sum up, the Chinese automakers are doing a good job in competing with their Japanese and American counterparts in 2009. I am confident that so long as the whole society make substantial and sustainable efforts, our country will surely be better.