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2010年(一月联考)考研英语二真题及答案(完整

来源:沃顿教育时间:2019-08-09 14:52

2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试

英语(二)试题

Section I  Use of English

Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)
The outbreak of swine flu that was first detected in Mexico was declared a global epidemic on June 11,2009. It is the first worldwide epidemic  1  by the World Health Organization in 41 years.
The heightened alert   2  an emergency meeting with flu experts in Geneva that assembled after a sharp rise in cases in Australia, and rising   3  in Britain, Japan, Chile and elsewhere.
  Bur the epidemic is “__4__”in severity. According to Margaret Chan, the organization’s director general, __5__ the overwhelming majority of patients experiencing only mild symptoms and full recovery. Often in the __6__ of any medical treatment.
  The outbreak came to global __7__ in late April 2009, when Mexican authorities noted an unusually large number of hospitalizations and deaths __8__ healthy adults. As much of Mexico City Shut down at the height of a panic, cases began to__9__in New York City, the south-western United States and around the world.
  In the United States, new cases seemed to fade__10__warmer weather arrived. But in late September 2009, officials reported there was__11__flu activity in almost every state and that virtually all the__12__tested are the new swine flu. Also known as (A)H1N1, not seasonal flu. In the U.S., It has__13__more than one million people, and caused more than 600 deaths and more than 6,000 hospitalizations.
Federal health officials ___14___ Tami flu for children from the national stockpile and began __15__ orders from the states for the new swine flu vaccine. The new vaccine, which is different from the annual flu vaccine, is__16__ ahead of expectations. More than three million doses were to be made available in early October 2009, though most of those __17__doses were of the FluMist nasal spray type,which is not __18__ for pregnant women,people over 50 or those with breathing difficulties, heart disease or several other__19__. But it was still possible to vaccinate people in other high-risk groups; health care workers, people __20__infants and healthy young people.
                                                                                             

1. [A]criticized  [B]appointed [C]commented  [D]designated  
2. [A]proceeded  [B]activated [C]followed [D]prompted
3. [A]digits [B]numbers [C]amounts [D]sums
4. [A]moderate [B]normal [C]unusual [D]extreme
5. [A]with [B]in [C]from [D]by
6. [A]progress [B]absence [C]presence  [D]favor
7. [A]reality [B]phenomenon [C]concept [D]notice
8. [A]over [B]for [C]among [D]to 
9. [A]stay up  [B]crop up [C]fill up [D]cover up
10. [A]as [B]if [C]unless [D]until
11. [A]excessive [B]enormous [C]significant [D]magnificent 
12. [A]categories [B]examples [C]patterns [D]samples 
13. [A]imparted [B]immersed [C]injected [D]infected
14. [A]released [B]relayed [C]relieved [D]remained
15. [A]placing [B]delivering [C]taking [D]giving
16. [A]feasible [B]available [C]reliable [D]applicable
17. [A]prevalent [B]principal [C]innovative [D]initial
18. [A]presented [B]restricted [C]recommended [D]introduced
19. [A]problems [B]issues [C]agonies  [D]sufferings
20. [A]involved in [B]caring for [C]concerned with [D]warding off
 
Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension 
 
Part A
Directions: Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
 
Text 1
  The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, “Beautiful Inside My Head Forever”, at Sotheby’s in London on September 15th 2008 (see picture). All but two pieces sold, fetching more than £70m, a record for a sale by a single artist. It was a last hurrah. As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street, Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy.
  The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising vertiginously since 2003. At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $65 billion, reckons Clare McAndrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research firm-double the figure five years earlier. Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. But the market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth, enormous egos, greed, passion and controversy in a way matched by few other industries.
  In the weeks and months that followed Mr Hirst’s sale, spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable, especially in New York, where the bail-out of the banks coincided with the loss of thousands of jobs and the financial demise of many art-buying investors. In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms. Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and in the most overheated sector-for Chinese contemporary art-they were down by nearly 90% in the year to November 2008. Within weeks the world’s two biggest auction houses, Sotheby’s and Christie’s, had to pay out nearly $200m in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sale with them.
  The current downturn in the art market is the worst since the Japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 1989, a move that started the most serious contraction in the market since the second world war. This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more volatile. But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’re at the bottom.”
  What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market, whereas in the early 1990s, when interest rates were high, there was no demand even though many collectors wanted to sell. Christie’s revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher than in the first half of 2006. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds - death, debt and divorce-still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return.
21. In the first paragraph, Damien Hirst's sale was referred to as “a last victory” because ____.
  A.the art market had witnessed a succession of victories
  B.the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids
  C.Beautiful Inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces
  D.it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis
22. By saying “spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable”(Line 1-2, Para.3), the author suggests that_____ .
  A. collectors were no longer actively involved in art-market auctions
  B. people stopped every kind of spending and stayed away from galleries
  C. art collection as a fashion had lost its appeal to a great extent
  D. works of art in general had gone out of fashion so they were not worth buying
 23. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
  A. Sales of contemporary art fell dramatically from 2007to 2008.
  B. The art market surpassed many other industries in momentum.
  C. The market generally went downward in various ways.
  D. Some art dealers were awaiting better chances to come.
 24. The three Ds mentioned in the last paragraph are ____
  A. auction houses' favorites            B. contemporary trends
  C. factors promoting artwork circulation  D. styles representing impressionists
 25. The most appropriate title for this text could be ___
  A. Fluctuation of Art Prices           B. Up-to-date Art Auctions
  C. Art Market in Decline            D. Shifted Interest in Arts
 
Text 2
  I was addressing a small gathering in a suburban Virginia living room -- a women's group that had invited men to join them. Throughout the evening one man had been particularly talkative frequently offering ideas and anecdotes while his wife sat silently beside him on the couch. Toward the end of the evening I commented that women frequently complain that their husbands don't talk to them. This man quickly concurred. He gestured toward his wife and said "She's the talker in our family." The room burst into laughter; the man looked puzzled and hurt. "It's true" he explained. "When I come home from work I have nothing to say. If she didn't keep the conversation going we'd spend the whole evening in silence."
  This episode crystallizes the irony that although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations they often talk less at home. And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage.
  The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late '70s. Sociologist Catherine Kohler Riessman reports in her new book "Divorce Talk" that most of the women she interviewed -- but only a few of the men -- gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces. Given the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent that amounts to millions of cases in the United States every year -- a virtual epidemic of failed conversation.
  In my own research complaints from women about their husbands most often focused not on tangible inequities such as having given up the chance for a career to accompany a husband to his or doing far more than their share of daily life-support work like cleaning cooking social arrangements and errands. Instead they focused on communication: "He doesn't listen to me" "He doesn't talk to me." I found as Hacker observed years before that most wives want their husbands to be first and foremost conversational partners but few husbands share this expectation of their wives.
  In short the image that best represents the current crisis is the stereotypical cartoon scene of a man sitting at the breakfast table with a newspaper held up in front of his face while a woman glares at the back of it wanting to talk.
26. What is most wives' main expectation of their husbands?
  A.Talking to them.           B.Trusting them.
  C.Supporting their careers.      D. Sharing housework.
27. Judging from the context, the phrase “wreaking havoc” (Line 3,Para.2) most probably means ___ .
  A generating motivation.          B.exerting influence
  C.causing damage               D creating pressure
28.All of the following are true EXCEPT _______
  A.men tend to talk more in public tan women
  B.nearly 50percent of recent divorces are caused by failed conversation
  C.women attach much importance to communication between couples
  D. a female tends to be more talkative at home than her spouse
29. Which of the following can best summarize the main idea of this text ?
  A.The moral decaying deserves more research by sociologists .
  B.Marriage breaks up stems from sex inequalities.
  C.Husband and wife have different expectations from their marriage.
  D.Conversational patterns between man and wife are different.
30. In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probably focus on ______
  A. a vivid account of the new book Divorce Talk
  B. a detailed description of the stereotypical cartoon
  C. other possible reasons for a high divorce rate in the U.S.
  D. a brief introduction to the political scientist Andrew Hacker
 
Text 3
  Over the past decade, many companies had perfected the art of creating automatic behaviors - habits - among consumers. These habits have helped companies earn billions of dollars when customers eat snacks, apply lotions and wipe counters almost without thinking, often in response to a carefully designed set of daily cues.
  “There are fundamental public health problems, like hand washing with soap, that remain killers only because we can’t figure out how to change people’s habits,” Dr. Curtis said. “We wanted to learn from private industry how to create new behaviors that happen automatically.”
  The companies that Dr. Curtis turned to - Procter & Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever - had invested hundreds of millions of dollars finding the subtle cues in consumers’ lives that corporations could use to introduce new routines.
  If you look hard enough, you’ll find that many of the products we use every day - chewing gums, skin moisturizers, disinfecting wipes, air fresheners, water purifiers, health snacks, antiperspirants, colognes, teeth whiteners, fabric softeners, vitamins - are results of manufactured habits. A century ago, few people regularly brushed their teeth multiple times a day. Today, because of canny advertising and public health campaigns, many Americans habitually give their pearly whites a cavity-preventing scrub twice a day, often with Colgate, Crest or one of the other brands.
  A few decades ago, many people didn’t drink water outside of a meal. Then beverage companies started bottling the production of far-off springs,and now office workers unthinkingly sip bottled water all day long. Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now featured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleanser for use after a meal. Skin moisturizers are advertised as part of morning beauty rituals,slipped in between hair brushing and putting on makeup.
  “Our products succeed when they become part of daily or weekly patterns,” said Carol Berning, a consumer psychologist who recently retired from Procter & Gamble, the company that sold $76 billion of Tide, Crest and other products last year. “Creating positive habits is a huge part of improving our consumers’ lives, and it’s essential to making new products commercially viable.”
  Through experiments and observation, social scientists like Dr. Berning have learned that there is power in tying certain behaviors to habitual cues through relentless advertising. As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods.
31. According to Dr.Curtis, habits like hand washing with soap________.
  [A] should be further cultivated  [B] should be changed gradually
  [C] are deeply rooted in history  [D] are basically private concerns
32. Bottled water, chewing gun and skin moisturizers are mentioned in Paragraph 5 so as to ____
  [A] reveal their impact on people’s habits
  [B] show the urgent need of daily necessities
  [C] indicate their effect on people’s buying power
[D] manifest the significant role of good habits
33.which of the following does NOT belong to products that help create people’s habits?
  [A]Tide  [B]Crest  [C]Colgate [D]Unilver
34. From the text we know that some of consumer’s habits are developed due to _____
  [A]perfected art of products  [B]automatic behavior creation
  [C]commercial promotions  [D]scientific experiments
35.the author’s attitude toward the influence of advertisement on people’s habits is ____
  [A]indifferent    [B]negative [C]positive [D]biased
 
Text 4
  Many Americans regard the jury system as a concrete expression of crucial democratic values, including the principles that all citizens who meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy are equally competent to serve on juries; that jurors should be selected randomly from a representative cross section of the community; that no citizen should be denied the right to serve on a jury on account of race, religion, sex, or national origin; that defendants are entitled to trial by their peers; and that verdicts should represent the conscience of the community and not just the letter of the law. The jury is also said to be the best surviving example of direct rather than representative democracy. In a direct democracy, citizens take turns governing themselves, rather than electing representatives to govern for them.
  But as recently as in 1986, jury selection procedures conflicted with these democratic ideals. In some states, for example, jury duty was limited to persons of supposedly superior intelligence, education, and moral character. Although the Supreme Court of the United States had prohibited intentional racial discrimination in jury selection as early as the 1880 case of Strauder v. West Virginia,the practice of selecting so-called elite or blue-ribbon juries provided a convenient way around this and other anti-discrimination laws.
  The system also failed to regularly include women on juries until the mid-20th century. Although women first served on state juries in Utah in 1898,it was not until the 1940s that a majority of states made women eligible for jury duty. Even then several states automatically exempted women from jury duty unless they personlly asked to have their names included on the jury list. This practice was justified by the claim that women were needed at home, and it kept juries unrepresentative of women through the 1960s.
  In 1968, the Congress of the United States passed the Jury Selection and Service Act, ushering in a new era of democratic reforms for the jury.This law abolished special educational requirements for federal jurors and required them to be selected at random from a cross section of the entire community. In the landmark 1975 decision Taylor v. Louisiana, the Supreme Court extended the requirement that juries be representative of all parts of the community to the state level. The Taylor decision also declared sex discrimination in jury selection to be unconstitutional and ordered states to use the same procedures for selecting male and female jurors.
36. From the principles of the US jury system, we learn that ______
[A] both literate and illiterate people can serve on juries
[B] defendants are immune from trial by their peers
[C] no age limit should be imposed for jury service
[D] judgment should consider the opinion of the public
37. The practice of selecting so-called elite jurors prior to 1968 showed _____
[A] the inadequacy of anti-discrimination laws
[B] the prevalent discrimination against certain races
[C] the conflicting ideals in jury selection procedures
[D] the arrogance common among the Supreme Court justices
38. Even in the 1960s,women were seldom on the jury list in some states because_____
[A] they were automatically banned by state laws
[B] they fell far short of the required qualifications
[C] they were supposed to perform domestic duties
[D] they tended to evade public engagement
39.After the Jury Selection and Service Act was passed.___
[A] sex discrimination in jury selection was unconstitutional and had to be abolished
[B] educational requirements became less rigid in the selection of federal jurors
[C] jurors at the state level ought to be representative of the entire community
[D] states ought to conform to the federal court in reforming the jury system
40. In discussing the US jury system, the text centers on_______
[A] its nature and problems        [B] its characteristics and tradition
[C] its problems and their solutions  [D]its tradition and development
 
Part B
Directions: Read the following text and decide whether each of the statements is true or false. Choose T if the statement is true or F it the statement is not true. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)
Copying Birds May Save Aircraft Fuel
  Both Boeing and Airbus have trumpeted the efficiency of their newest aircraft. The 787 and 350 respectively. Their clever designs and lightweight composites certainly make a difference. But a group of researchers at Stanford University, led by Ilan Kroo, has suggested that airlines could take a more naturalistic approach to cutting jet-fuel use and it would not require them to buy new aircraft.
  The answer, says Dr Kroo, lies with birds. Since 1914, scientists have known that birds flying in formation a V-shape-expend less energy. The air flowing over a bird’s wings curls upwards behind the wingtips. a phenomenon known as upwash. Other birds flying in the upwash experience reduced drag, and spend less energy propelling themselves. Peter Lissaman, an aeronautics expert who was formerly at Caltech and the University of Southern California, has suggested that a formation of 25 birds might enjoy a range increase of 71%.
  When applied to aircraft, the principles are not substantially different. Dr Kroo and his team modeled what would happen if three passenger jets departing from Los Angeles, San Francisco and I as Vegas were to assemble over Utah, assume an inverted V-formation occasionally change places so all could have a turn in the most favourable positions, and proceed to London. They found that the aircraft consumed as much as 15% less fuel (coupled with a reduction in carbon-dioxide output). Nitrogen-oxide emissions during the cruising portions of the flight fell by around a quarter.
  There are, of course, knots to be worked out. One consideration is safety, or at least the perception of it. Would passengers feel comfortable travelling in companion? Dr Kroo points out that the aircraft could be separated by several nautical miles, and would not be in the intimate groupings favoured by display teams like the Red Arrows, A passenger peering out of the window might not even see the other planes. Whether the separation distances involved would satisfy air-traffic-control regulations is another matter, although a working group at the International Civil Aviation Organisation has included the possibility of formation flying in a blueprint for new operational guidelines.
  It remains to be seen how weather conditions affect the air flows that make formation flight more efficient. In zones of increased turbulence, the planes’ wakes will decay more quickly and the effect will diminish. Dr Kroo says this is one of the areas his team will investigate further. It might also be hard for airlines to co-ordinate the departure times and destinations of passenger aircraft in a way that would allow them to gain from formation flight. Cargo aircraft, in contrast, might be easier to reschedule, as might routine military flight.
  As it happens, America’s armed forces are on the on case already. Earlier this year the country’s Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency announced plans to pay Boeing to investigate formation flight, though the programme has yet to begin. There are reports that some military aircraft flew in formation when they were low on fuel during the Second World War, but Dr Lissaman says they are unsubstantiated. “My father was an RAF pilot and my cousin the skipper of a Lancaster lost over Berlin,” he adds. So he should know.
41. Findings of the Stanford University researchers will promote the sales of new Boeing and Airbus aircraft.
42. The upwash experience may save propelling energy as well as reducing resistance.
43. Formation flight is more comfortable because passengers can not see the other plans.
44. The role that weather plays in formation flight has not yet been clearly defined.
45. It has been documented that during World War II, America’s armed forces once tried formation flight to save fuel.
 
Section Ⅲ Translation
46.Directions: In this section there is a text in English. Translate it into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2. (15points)
  “Sustainability” has become a popular word these days, but to Ted Ning, the concept will always have personal meaning. Having endured a painful period of unsustainability in his own life made it clear to him that sustainability-oriented values must be expressed though everyday action and choice.
  Ning recalls spending a confusing year in the late 1990s selling insurance. He’d been though the dot-com boom and burst and,desperate for a job,signed on with a Boulder agency.
  It didn’t go well. “It was a really had move because that’s not my passion,” says Ning, whose dilemma about the job translated, predictably, into a lack of sales. “I was miserable, I had so much anxiety that I would wake up in the middle of the night and stare at the ceiling. I had no money and needed the job. Everyone said, ‘Just wait, you’ll turn the corner, give it some time.’”
 
 
Section Ⅳ Writing
Part A
47. Directions:
  You have just come back from the U.S. as a member of a Sino-American cultural exchange program. Write a letter to your American colleague to
  1) Express your thanks for his/her warm reception;
  2) Welcome him/her to visit China in due course.
  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.
  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Zhang Wei” instead.
Do not write your address. (10 points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Part B
48. Directions:
 In this section, you are asked to write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should
  1) Interpret the chart and
  2) Give your comments.
  You should write at least 150 words.
 Write your essay on on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

  


Section I  Use of English
1. D上文提到“… was declared a global epidemic…”,根据 declare 的逻辑(“宣布为”),可知应该选 D 项
designated“命名,制定”,而不是 C 项 commented“评论”,这是典型的近义词复现题目。
2.C 本题目可依据“句意”找到意思线索,选出答案,难度在于出处句是个长难句。本句的理解应该抓住 alert、
meeting 和 a sharp rise 三者的关系,根据 after a sharp rise 可知是 rise(“病例数的增加”)是 meeting(“日内瓦专家会议”)的原因,由此可推导出alert并非是meeting 的原因,而是结果,即meeting使得alert升级。根据上述分析可以排除 B、D选项,B项activated“激活,激起”,D项“促使,引起”,此两项的选择都在讲alert导致了meeting的召开。而 C 项 followed意思是“紧随,跟在……之后”,体现出after的逻辑,完全满足本句rise之后是meeting,meeting之后是alert的逻辑,所以是正确项。而A项proceeded“继续”,属不及物动词,不可接宾语,用法和逻辑用在此处都不合适。
3. B 本题目应该关注并列连词and,从并列呼应来看:空格后的表达 in Britain…对应前面的in Australia,所以空格处rising ____ 应该对应 a sharp rise in cases(“病例数的剧增”),因此空格处是“数量”的逻辑才对。A项digits“(阿拉伯)数字”,不表示数量,不能与 rising 形成搭配;C项amounts“数量”,常修饰不可数名词(此处指的是cases,可数名词);D项sums“金额,款项”,不能用于表达“病例数”。B项numbers“数量”,修饰可数名词(如:large numbers of cases大量的病例),符合题意。
4. A 此处句子开头的“But”是重要的逻辑线索,与上文意思(第二段)形成对比反差。上文的关键性表达如“heightened alert”、“emergency meeting”和“a sharp rise in cases”都在讲述猪流感的严重性,所以根据But和 in severity,可知空格处应该是“不严重或缓和”的逻辑。
5. A  But the epidemic is “moderate” in severity, …5…patients experiencing … symptoms and …recovery…,本句的划线部分是句子主干(主系表),逗号后面的表达是包含有逻辑主语patients和逻辑谓语experiencing的独立主格结构(symptoms and … recovery 是逻辑宾语)。根据语法原理,只有介词with才可以引导独立主格,所以选A。再比如:She sat there, with tears streaming down her face.“她坐在那里,泪流满面”。
6. B 根据出处句中…in the of …这个搭配,可排除 A、D项,答案应该选 B、C项中的一个。B项in the absence of“缺乏,不存在”,例如The case was dismissed in the absence of any definite proof.“此案因缺乏确凿证据不予受理”。C项in the presence of逻辑相反,意思是“存在…的情况下”,例如,The document was signed in the presence of two witnesses.“本文件是在两位证人的见证下签署的”。
7. D 根据出处句中…come to global…这个搭配,可排除B、C项,答案应该选A、D项中的一个。A项come to reality指“成为现实”;D项come to notice为“受到关注”。
8. C  an unusual large number of hospitalizations and deaths healthy adults,空格前意思“极其众多的住院和死亡案例”,空格后意思“健康的成年人”不难看出,前者和后者是被包含与包含的逻辑关系,所以选C项among“在……中”。其他三个选项:A项over“覆盖;超过”等;B项for“对于;因为”等;D项to“朝向;对于”等,均不能表示“包含”的逻辑关系。
9. B  上文(本段首句)提到 The outbreak came to global notice…“这场瘟疫的爆发引起了全球性关注”,接着本句阐述说“不仅在墨西哥该病例让人很惊慌,而且它开始在纽约、美国西南部,以及世界各地开始出现”。所以,此处空格应该是“出现”之意。A项stay up“熬夜”,C项fill up“填满。装满”,D项cover up“盖住;掩盖”,上述三项的意思无法体现所需逻辑需要,而B项crop up的意思正是“突然出现,大量出现”,所以选B。
10. A  …new cases seemed to fade ____ warmer weather arrived,本句中下划线部分是主干,斜体部分是状语从句,空格处的连词选择取决于前后主从句的逻辑关系。不难看出从句部分“温暖天气的来临”自身有明显的时间概念,所以可重点关注A、D两项。A项 as随着,代入本句,逻辑是随着天气转暖,新的病例似乎逐渐减少,没有任何瑕疵。D 项until 直到……时,选本项有一个逻辑要求,即主句的谓语动词必须有“持续”之意,如 He sat there until I returned.他坐在那,一直到我回来,而此句主干部分的动词seemed to fade 不能表示这种持续,不能说新的病例似乎减少到天气转暖的时候。B项if如果和 C 项unless除非均表示假设或条件,代入空格形成完整句子的逻辑存在明显问题。
11. C 本句开头的But提示本句和上文信息逻辑相反,上文讲病例似乎逐渐减少(fade),所以本句空白处应该是意义相反的词义。A项excessive过多的,过度的,B项enormous巨大的,庞大的,C项significant显著的,明显的(注:此处不应理解为重要的,有意义的),D项 magnificent壮观的,根据句意“官方报道说几乎每个州的流感发作都很_____”,答案显然选 C。
12. D 此处空白所填词义需满足两个条件:(1)与 tested 构成动宾逻辑;(2)与 the new swine flu构成主表逻辑。 A项 categories(人或事物)种类,类别,C 项 patterns 模式,样式,此两项含义显然不能满足上述逻辑条件。B 项 examples例子和 D 项 samples样品,样本相互干扰较大,这是因为两者形相似义相近(注:答案常蕴含在这种关系的选项中)。但能符合上述条件(1)和(2),含义为几乎所有检测的_______都是新的猪流感的只能是D 。
13. D  从该句后半部分的“and caused more than 600 deaths…”可看出,空白处的动词应与后面的 caused(“引起”)是因果逻辑关系。此外,空白处的动词还与前面的 it(指代“猪流感”)构成主谓逻辑关系。 A 项 imparted告知;传授;给予,例如:to impart news to the press 向新闻透露消息。B 项 immersed使浸没。例如:The child immersed his head in water. 这个孩子将脑袋没入了水中;C 项 injected 注射,打针。此三项显然无法满足上述的逻辑条件。D 项 infected 感染,传染和 C 项 injected 形相近(注:答案常蕴含在这种关系的选项中),并且满足它已经感染了……并引起……这样的逻辑条件,选 D。
14. A 根据for children和 from the national stockpile两个介词短语的逻辑可知:children 是 Tamiflu 的接受者,而 the national stockpile 是 Tamiflu 的来源出处。此外,空白处动词需与 Federal health officials  形成主谓逻辑,同时和 Tamiflu 形成动宾逻辑。A 项released释放,发行可引申为此句所需的逻辑发放以满足上述条件,即“联邦政府的卫生官员从贮备中发放Tamiflu疫苗给儿童;B项 relayed接替;转接;C项 relieved缓解;D项remained依然是,剩余。此三项无法满足上述逻辑。
15. C 本句话中began to ______ orders from the states的动作发出者是Federal health officials,结合介词from,它和the states的逻辑关系应是卫生部官员接受各州的订单,而非“卫生部官员向各州下订单”,所以只能选C项taking。
16. B 下文信息(下句)More than three million doses were to be made available in early October 2009到2009年10月初,300 多万剂新疫苗就能生产出来,此句信息实际上是空白出处句的具体扩展,逻辑高度对应:The new vaccine对应More than three million doses, ahead of expectation对应in early October 2009,所以is _____ 正好对应were to be made available。B 项available可得到的,可获得的,根据上述思路,它显然属于同词的复现呼应,是正确选项。A项feasible可行的,合理的,C项 reliable可靠的和D项applicable适用的,不符合上下文同词复现的条件。
17. D 空格前的指示代词 those 是重要线索,指代上句 more than three million doses,即上句中的 the new vaccine,所以所填词汇应和new是同义词。D项 initial最初的 ,和 new属于同义词,显然属于同义词复现呼应,是正确项。A项prevalent流行的,盛行的,B项principal主要的和C项 innovative革新的,不合上下文同词复现的条件。
18. C 下文信息的But是逻辑线索,根据此处的still possible可知:空格处的逻辑应和 possible是同义词关系。C项recommended被推荐的显然和possible可行的属同义词的呼应。
19. A 应关注并列连词 or。根据…those (with breathing difficulties, heart disease or several other _  19___)中的or和other可知:difficulties、disease 和空格词汇属近义词关系。A 项 problems“问题”,此词的含义具有一定的宽泛性(即概括性),不仅在逻辑上包含 difficulties 和 disease,又与它们属近义词的呼应,正确答案。B 项 issues问题,但仅指争论的问题;C 项 agonies和 D 项 sufferings 都表示痛苦,根据四选一的原则,两项应被排除。
20. B 据and可知:health care workers, people 20 infants和healthy young people并列,三者属近义的逻辑。根据care,及常用的同义词复现呼应原理,应选B caring for照顾,照料。
 
Section II  Reading Comprehension
21. D 据In the first paragraph和a last victory定位首段倒数第二句It was a last victory。答案应该在首段的尾句:As the auctioneer called out bids, ...Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy.就在拍卖师喊出报价时,……雷曼兄弟申请破产。该句中提到的银行破产与D中的金融危机相吻合。题干中的a last victory指金融危机前的最后一次成功的拍卖,D正确。A艺术品市场经历了一系列的成功的交易,B拍卖人最终以高价得到了两件作品和C我脑海中永存的美丽赢了所有大作在文章中都没有提到,无中生有。
22. A 据Line 1-2,Para. 3和spending…became deeply unfashionable定位第三段首句In the weeks and months…, spending…became deeply unfashionable。句子推断题,关注定位信息上下文,此题定位是段首句,关注段内的下文信息,In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms.指的是收藏家不再花钱购买艺术品了,即他们不再参与艺术品市场的拍卖了,D正确。B 的people和every kind of spending逻辑范围过大,绝对化。C、D逻辑意思相近,都是说艺术品不再时尚,没提及应排除。
23. B 事实细节题,题干缺乏信号词,需对选项定位。B的信号momentum,定位第二段的首句:The world art market had already been losing momentum…,但无论此句还是文章其他部分都没有提及surpassed many other industries,无中生有,B正确。A 定位第二段的二、三句:At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $ 65 billion…Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. A正确。C定位第三段首句:…spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable,此句中的 spending = the art market, of any sort = generally和 in various ways, became deeply unfashionable = went downward,C正确。D定位尾段尾句:But anyone who…is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return,D正确。
24. C 据the last paragraph和the three Ds定位尾段倒数第二句:The three Ds—death, debt and divorce—still deliver works of art to the market. 三D因素——死亡、债务、和离婚——依然会把艺术品推向市场。据前后信息找到线索。3Ds后的谓语部分是still deliver works of art to the market与C对应,C正确。A中的auction houses’ favorites和B中的contemporary trends 未提到,无中生有。D中的 Impressionists出自第四段句首,与本项无关系,无中生有。
25. C 主旨题是对整篇文章的高度概括。每一段的第一句几乎都有art market这个词,即艺术品市场,而且通过文章的阅读,容易抓住艺术品市场不景气,C正确。A艺术品价格的波动和B最新的艺术品拍卖包含内容太少,没有从整体上概括全文。D对文科兴趣的转向则有些混淆视听的效果。Arts 可指学科类别中的文科门类,也可以与定冠词一起泛指艺术。
26. A 根据most wives’ main expectation of their husbands定位第四段尾句:…most wives want their husbands to be, first and foremost, conversational partners, but few husbands share this expectation of their wives.从该句中的expectation可知,妻子寄予丈夫的主要希望是conversation partners,A正确。第四段支持事业和分担家务并不是女性们抱怨的主要内容,排除C和D。而通篇并没有谈论信任,排除B。
27. C 据Line 2, Para. 2 和wreaking havoc定位第二段尾句:And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage,做词汇题时从上下文找线索:上文提到 they often talk less at home。第三段进一步引用社会学家Kohler专著的发现,即多数女性认为缺乏沟通是她们离婚的原因。得出这种模式正在危害婚姻,C正确。A产生激励。B产生影响。D造成压力。都不如C准确。
28. B 排除题,题干缺信号词,需对选项定位。B定位第三段尾句:Given the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent...,经比照可发现原文只是提到目前美国离婚率为50%,但未说50%的离婚率是由交谈失败造成的,B错误,本题正确答案。A、D定位第二段首句:…although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations, they often talk less at homeA、D正确。C定位第四段第二句:Instead, they focused on communication, C正确。
29. D 主旨题,将首尾段信息做综合处理:首段episode和尾段cartoon scene讲述丈夫和妻子在交谈方式的差异。D正确。A没有提及,无中生有。B在第四段句首涉及,但与选项意义相反。C虽有涉及,但太过宽泛,不具体。
30. B 定位最后一段,描述stereotypical cartoon的画面,下段中有可能对卡通画详细描写,B正确。A的the new book Divorce出自第三段,与漫画信息没有联系。C干扰大,但主题是谈话方式的差异,只能继续这主题。D与前面内容和接下来内容相去甚远,介绍此人会突兀。
31. A 第二段There are fundamental public health problems, …how to change people’s habits提到一些基本的公众健康问题之所以对生命造成威胁,仅仅是因为我们没弄明白如何去改变人们的习惯。如我们搞清如何改变人们的习惯,不用香皂洗手这样的问题就不会造成威胁,对用香皂洗手的习惯应该加以培养。A正确。B对change people’s habits改变人们习惯的误解,排除。C在文中没提到,排除。D与原文表述不一致,文中提到fundamental public health problems也就是说用香皂洗手这样的习惯是公众问题,而不是个人的问题,排除。
32. A属典型举例段落,据例证题思路,应在上段寻找。上段信息后两句举例,定位应是第四段首句:If you look hard enough, you’ll find that many of the products we use every day…are results of manufactured habits,许多产品的使用都是被制造出的习惯,举诸多产品为例目的就是阐述人们很多习惯的改变,A正确。B中urgent need在文中没有体现,C 中的buying power在文中也没有体现,此两项属无中生有。D中的good habits显然是错误的标志,作者只是客观阐述产品对人们习惯的影响,没有评论这些习惯的好坏。
33. D由文章第六段…Tide, Crest, and other products…Creating positive habits is a huge part of improving our consumers’ lives可知,Tide, Crest and other products可以帮助顾客养成良好的习惯,而Unilever虽然文中有提,但它是公司名称,不是产品名称。D正确。结合常识Colgate和Crest都是牙膏,也应该可以帮助人们养成良好的习惯。A、B、C都不正确。
34. C 最后一段第一句话中there is power in trying certain behaviors to habitual cues through ruthless advertising是理解关键。through ruthless advertising充分说明人们某些消费习惯的养成深受无情的广告的影响。综合文章前面的论述,广告产品对人们的影响很大,C正确。A、B是第一句中完善建立自动行为的艺术的错误理解,排除。D出自尾段首句Through experiments and observation 这是社会学家所发现的途径,和问题无关。
35. B 最后一句话的As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods.是理解的关键。controversies have erupted,sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods出售有质疑的美容产品或是不健康的食品,可知广告对人们习惯的影响引起了众多争论,而且许多广告宣传的产品不真实。观点是否定的, B正确。C与坐着的意思相反,应排除。文章的大部分内容论述柯蒂斯博士的研究,没发表自己的观点,A错误。D在文中体现不出来,故排除。
36. D 第一段提到美国陪审团制度的原则。根据verdicts should represent the conscience of the community判决应该代表公众的良知,可知D是原文的同意替换,D正确。A、C与原文all citizens who meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy are equally competent to serve on juries所有具备最低的年龄和读写能力资格的人都有资格担当陪审员,矛盾,B与原文defendants are entitled to trial by their peers被告有权接受同阶审判,矛盾,排除此三项。
37. A 定位第二段最后一句:Although the Supreme Court …, the practice of selecting so-called elite or blue-ribbon juries provided a convenient way around this and other antidiscrimination laws.虽然美国最高法院……,选拔所谓的精英的陪审团给这种或其他反歧视法提供了方便。provided a convenient way around是分析本题目的关键,C正确。B对某个种族的普遍歧视,干扰项。C陪审员挑选过程中的相互冲突的理念,与原文不符。D没提到,无中生有。
38. C 第三段的最后一句This practice was justified by the claim that women were needed at home提到家庭需要女性的主张给这一情况提供了辩解,C正确。A偷换概念,原文是Even then several states而非states laws。B、D 两项中未提及。
39. B 第四段第二句话his law abolished special educational requirements for federal jurors and required them to be selected at random from a cross section of the entire community.其中的关键表达是abolished special educational requirements,与B became less rigid相近。B正确。A、C、D都是发生在1975年泰勒诉路易斯安那的裁决之后,排除。
40. D 考察对中心思想的归纳和概括能力,正确选项的关键在于理解文章四个段落的主要内容和相互联系。第一段概括介绍美国陪审制度的五个原则,第二、三、四段分别介绍美国陪审制度的发展,包括陪审员的挑选、女性陪审员地位的变化以及教育和性别要求的变化,文章主要介绍美国陪审制度的历史和发展。D正确。A、B中的 nature 和 characteristics 属首段信息,根据第二段首句的转折词 But 可知它不是文章中的重点因素。C有一定的迷惑性,但忽略时间因素As recently as in 1968(第二段)until the mid-20th century(第三段)和 ushering a new era(尾段)等,也不应选。
 
41. F 据Findings of the Stanford University researchers定位首段最后一句。it would not require them to buy new aircraft不需要它们购买新飞机,说明斯坦福大学研究人员的发现不会促进飞机的销售,陈述与文章矛盾,答案F。
42. T 据The upwash experience”可回文定位到文章第二段第四句。题干中的save propelling energy与原文中的spend less energy propelling themselves属同义转述,题干中的reducing resistance与原文中的reduced drug属同义转述,陈述符合文章内容,答案T。
43.  F 涉及的信息点是,编队飞行是否更加舒适,如果是,原因是否是乘客看不到别的飞机。根据Formation flight is more confortable定位第四段第三句。作者讨论现实操作中遇到的难题及其解决方法,难题有两个:一个是安全因素,另一个是同时飞行时乘客感到舒适么?编队飞行更加舒适是需要解决的难题之一,并非既有事实,题干论述不符合原文,答案 F。
44. T 据weather plays in formation flight定位第五段第一句到第三句。weather conditions等同weather, affect与play role in同义转述,it remains to be seen与has not yet been clearly defined对应,表述正确。
45.  F 据World War Ⅱ定位最后一段第三句,有报道说有战机二战时由于燃料不足而编队飞行,但还没得到证明。has been documented与they are unsubstantiated矛盾,表述错误。
 
Section III  Translation
近来,“承受力”成为了一个流行词,但对特德•宁而言,他对其却有自己亲身的体会。
在经历了一段无法承受的痛苦生活后,他清楚地认识到,旨在提高承受力的价值观必须体现在日常行为和抉择中。宁回忆起 20 世纪 90 年代后期销售保险那困惑的一年。在经历了网络泡沫的膨胀和破灭后,他急需找到一份工作,因此就与博德代理公司签了约。
但工作进展并不顺利。“这的确是糟糕的一步,因为它不是我的热情所在,”宁说。不出所料,工作上的进退维谷造成了他销售业绩不佳。“我很痛苦,愁绪万千,常常在半夜惊醒,望着天花板发愣。我身无分文,急需这份工作。大家都说‘耐心点,情况会好转的。’”
 
Section III  Writing
Dear xxx,
    I would like to convey my heartfelt thanks to you for your kindness to receive me when I participated in the exchange program in USA.
   Your generous help made it possible that I had a very pleasant stay and a chance to know American cultures better.
Besides, I think it is an honor for me to make friends with you and I will cherish the goodwill you showed to me wherever I go. I do hope that you will visit China one day, so that I could have the opportunity to repay your kindness and refresh our friendship.
    I feel obliged to thank you again.
                                                                Sincerely yours,
                                                                  Zhang Wei
From the information given in the above column chart, it can be seen that the subscription number of mobile phones in developed countries had a steady but slight increase from 2000 to 2007 and remained unchanged in 2008, while there was a dramatic increase from 0.4 to 4 billion mobile phone subscriptions in developing countries.
     As far as I am concerned, the reasons leading to this phenomenon are as follows. Firstly, the developed countries have a limited number of population and therefore, the spreading of the mobile phone service is efficient and soon the market is saturated. Secondly, the extremely advanced civilization of developed countries means less potential in such areas as private telecommunication tools and their demand for further enlargement of such tools tend to saturate. Finally, developing countries have been enjoying strong economic growth in recent years. As a result, people in most developing countries are richer and richer, especially in China. So they can afford to buy such necessities as mobile-phones, as the prices continued to drop greatly in the past years.
    In short, now more and more people own mobile-phone, which makes it more convenient for people. And I firmly believe that this established trend will continue for quite a while in the forthcoming years. 

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